sport science

– Discuss the question whether elite sports performers are born with specific personality traits that predispose them to success,
or are they a product of their environment.
Support with specific sporting examples
– Mention theories that apply when discussing the question: 
1. Hollander (1967) – CORE Stable. Attitudes. Values. Motives. Beliefs. Self-worth. The ‘real you’. Response to environment. Reflects the core but could reflect environment in certain situations. Changeable. Situation specific. Reacting to environment

2. THEORIES OF PERSONALITY: – Psycho-dynamic Theory, Biological Theory, Trait Theory, Situational Theory, Interactional Theory

PSYCHODYNAMIC THEORY: – Divides the personality into three parts (Freud, S. 1923),ID :the instinctive drive (innate),Ego : the conscious personality, develops from 2 years old, Super-ego : the moral conscience develops from 5-6 years old, Psycho-dynamic approach looks at the person as an ever-changing mix of these three elements, constantly at odds with each other.
ADS / DISADS?

3. Biological Theory: – 
(Sheldon 1940, 1942): – 
Somatotypes predict personality
Ectomorph – Leanness and angularity of build = High levels of activity, tension and introversion
Mesomorph – Muscular and athletic = Responds with aggression, risk taking and leadership.
Endomorph – Rounder body type = Joviality, generosity, affection and sociability

4. TRAIT APPROACH: – 
Cattell, R. (1965): 16 personality factors (p.27 Cox)
Eysenck, H. (1968): (introvert/extrovert)
(stable/emotional)
Gill, D. (2000): The Big 5 extraversion
neuroticism
conscientiousness
openness
agreeableness
5. SITUATIONAL APPROACH:- 
Considers the situation or environment.
Based on the Social Learning Theory (Bandura, 1977) Uses concept of – modelling (observation) – reinforcement (feedback) Situation specific. Confident in one situation, not in another. (i.e. good swimmer in 50m pool, runner on indoor track for 1st time)

A mild mannered personality trait could be over-ridden in a specific game situation, (i.e. as result of foul play or bad referee decision)

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