Medieval and Early Modern Western Civilization
this paper requires you to read the articles and then answer the questions and then put all the answers into an essay
HISTORY 111: INTRODUCTION TO MEDIEVAL AND EARLY MODERN WESTERN CIVILIZATION E1
SECOND DOCUMENT ASSIGNMENT
MONDAY, MAY 11, 2015
Your second document assignment will be to prepare a 4-5 page paper on the following readings/websites, and then to answer the following questions:
Your paper should consider the following questions:
1. What were the recommendations that Niccolò Machiavelli made concerning how a prince should rule?
2. What were the challenges of Elizabeth I’s period of rule over England?
• How did she handle the attempted invasion of the Spanish Armada?
• How did she handle the problem of poverty in Elizabethan England?
• Based upon your readings, do you believe Elizabeth I of England ruled the way Machiavelli recommended? Why or why not?
3. What challenges did Richelieu believe faced the French monarchy in the 17th century?
• How did Richelieu believe these problems should be solved? (Please give at least one example.)
• How did Richelieu describe 17th –century French society?
• How did Richelieu believe members of society should be educated?
• What did Richelieu believe should be the chief aims of a ruler?
• Based upon your readings, would you consider Cardinal Richelieu to have been a successful Machiavellian ruler? Why or why not?
4. What problems, according to Hans Heberle, faced German peasants during the Thirty Years War in the Holy Roman Empire?
• What, according to Heberle, were the effects of the Thirty Years War on civilians?
• Would Hans Heberle have been one of the people, in your opinion, for whom Cardinal Richelieu WOULD or WOULD NOT have recommended education? Why or why not?
• How does Jacques Callot (1592-1635) depict the situation of peasants durring the Thirty Years War in the Etching Plundering of a Farm (1633)? Based upon the image alone (not the poem below the image), what perspective do you believe the artist had on the war?
5. What did Thomas Hobbes regard as the best form of government? How did he justify his argument?
• Would Machiavelli have agreed with Thomas Hobbes? Why or why not?
6. What did the English Parliament specify in the English Declaration of Rights?
• How would you compare the English Declaration of Rights (1689) to the Magna Carta?
• Do you believe the Magna Carta influenced the English Declaration of Rights?
• Based upon your reading of the English Declaration of Rights, do you believe that a Machiavellian “Prince” would have been content with the governance plan established by the English Declaration of Rights?
7. Where does Voltaire locate the story of Candide (1759)?
• How does Voltaire address the social views expressed by Richelieu?
• How does Voltaire address the experience of war described by Hans Heberle and Jacques Callot?
• Based upon what you have read, what do you think were Voltaire’s views of religious and political conflict, and absolute monarchy?
• How may Voltaire’s views be compared to Cardinal Richelieu’s?
• Do you believe that Machiavelli would have agreed with Voltaire? Why or why not?
• Do you think that Thomas Hobbes would have agreed with Voltaire? Why or why not?
8. If these documents are arranged in chronological order—that is, with the oldest document first, and the most recent document last—what do their differences suggest about historical development?
• How did views of ideal political leadership and governance change between 1500 and 1789?
• How did views of religious authority change between 1500 and 1789?
• What impact did the changes brought by the expansion of the global economy, the printing press, and the “military revolution,” have upon peasants in Europe?
• How did views of the peasants and human suffering change between 1500 and 1789?
• Based upon your readings, what would you identify as the most significant difference between the experience of Europeans between the medieval and early modern periods?
• Based upon your readings, what would you identify as the most significant continuity in the perspective of Europeans between the medieval and early modern periods?
In structuring your paper, think of these questions as an outline:
• Your opening sentence should state a thesis that would be a broad, rather than detailed, answer to question 8.
• Next, please use the discussion of answers to questions 1-7 to explain your position, based upon a careful reading and “deep analysis” of the sources.
• Finally, return to answering the remaining parts of question 8 in your conclusion.