Answer any TWO (and only two) of the following questions:
1.) Clifford and James (Will to Believe): Explain in detail Clifford’s position on the ethics of belief. (b) Explain his reasons for holding this view. (c) Explain James’s argument against Clifford. Include in your explanation an account of the will to believe and the role of passions. (d) Exactly what is James’s arguing for when it comes to the question of a belief in God? Explain. (e) Does James argue successfully against Clifford’s position? Explain your answer.
2.) Pascal and Kierkegaard: (a) What is the role of reason in deciding to believe in God? (b) What is the role of the passions in getting oneself to believe in God, for Pascal? (c) Explain why according, to Kierkegaard, the objective approach is not the appropriate way to God? (d) How is it that objective uncertainty can lead one to the infinite passion of inwardness required for subjective truth, for Kierkegaard? (e) Why does Kierkegaard hold that infinite passion is required for Christianity? Explain. (f) Do you think this view has problems? Explain your answer.
3. According to Nielson: (a) Explain what Nielson attempts to defend in the reading. (b) Explain the three main charges against the possibility of a secular morality (an ethics without God)? (c) Explain in detail how Nielson attempts to answer each one of these criticisms. (d) What are the possible problems with Nielson’s defense of a secular morality? Explain your answer.
4.) Stephen Jay Gould & Dawkins: (a) Explain Gould’s reasons for holding that there is no real conflict between religion and science (i.e., explain his NOMA position). (b) Explain Dawkins’ argument against Gould’s NOMA position? (c) What objections may be raised against Dawkins’ argument? Explain your answer. (d) Do you think it is possible to overcome or avoid conflict between religion and science? Explain your answer.
Read the philosophical theories and arguments assigned and answer the questions.
Note; for Neilson, i will attach the reading and the note from class. they might be helpful if you choose to write about Neilson’s argument or theory.
For the other questions, please try to find them online.
You get to pick TWO (only two questions) and answer each question in TWO pages.