Evaluation of Soft System Methodology (Mode 2) Toward Online Distance Education Improvement – Case of Saudi Arabia

The main aim of this paper: How ssm –mode 2 as a learning approach supports SSM practitioners to explore complex situation of online distance education system in terms of ill-defined issues by different stakeholders

My rationale aim as a researcher to present my findings of my study. So this paper is more practical than a theoretical paper.


[includes statement of problem ,last paragraph in this section should explain the structure of the paper]

Background of soft system methodology

[include using soft system as a conceptual lens in this study]

Ssm-mode 2 as a learning approach [use the references]

Research method

should explain that this approach applied in a higher education institution in Saudi Arabia; King Abdulaziz University [KAU], participants include all stakeholders involved in online distance education [ODE] system, data collection methods used are observation and semi-structured interviews. Also, mention that this approach is used SSM tools to help the researcher make sense about reflecting on daily activities and findings that gathered. Also, add SSM framework diagram by Checkland that includes both cultural and logical streams.

Online distance education system at King Abdulaziz University (KAU)


This includes current situation of the higher education institution [you can summarise it from use doc1.doc] includes analysis of cultural [in cultural environment section only focus on discussing gender separation as main social characteristic of most Saudi organisations and institutions,] and political environment [ in political environment section only focus on hierarchy organization structure with more power for male section] all these details you can find it in file doc2.doc



(should be written in reflective and descriptive ways)[focuses on stakeholders classifications and ill-defined issues and ideas of improvement to the situation) all these details you can find it in file doc1.doc and doc2.doc




How cultural and political environment are related to each other and other ill-defined issues (from perspectives of all stakeholders from both male and female sections) are emerged from this relationships.


References [I will provide you with some resources]

Use 13 references

Key author peter checkland

Use these resources as well:




Format of the paper:

Paper content and format:

Page 1 – Title Page Should include:

  1. Title (centred, bold and times new roman 14-point font)
  2. Abstract (times new roman 12-point font maximum 200 words)
  3. 3-5 Keywords: (times new roman 12-point font)
  4. The name of the track your paper is intended for [its name is SOLUTIONS FROM A MANAGEMENT PERSPECTIVE]

Page 2 – Start body of the paper

Headings and sub-headings

  1. Major headings. Should be numbered sequentially, in capital letters and bolded. One space line should precede and follow a heading.

1.1 Sub-headings. Should be numbered according to the main heading, in italics and only the first letter should be in capital letter. One space line should precede and follow a sub-heading.

Figures and tables should be properly numbered (Ex., Table 1, Table 2,…),  integrated within the text and  be centred on the page width.

Footnotes. At the bottom of the page should be kept to a minimum and numbered consecutively throughout the text with superscript Arabic numerals.

References should follow APA Style


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